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Cello Handbook  
CONTENTS  
HOW TO USE THIS BOOK  
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  

INSTRUMENT AND EQUIPMENT

3

Bow

3

Illustration; Parts; Care of Bow; Rosin

 

Cello

4

Illustration; Parts; Care Of Cello; Tuning; A Short History Of The Cello; The Cello And Its Wolf

 

Chair and Rock Stop

7

The Cellos In An Orchestra

8

GLOSSARY

11

Words

11

Symbols

20

Printed; Handwritten

 

RHYTHM

25

Element Of Music That Relates To Time; More Than ‘Keeping Time’; Performance Of Rhythm

25

RHYTHM NOTATION

26

Length And Speed Of Notes

26

Relative Lengths of Notes; Note Value; Tempo; Actual Lengths of Notes

 

The Values Of Notes

26

The Arithmetic of Note Values; Adding Note Values Together; Subdividing Note Values; Duple and Triple

 

The Values Of Rests

31

Combining Notes and Rests

 

Dotted Notes and Dotted Rests

32

Ties

33

METER

34

Beats, Measures, Bar Lines

34

Time Signatures

36

Metrical Accents

37

The Standard Meters

37

Simple Meters; Compound Meters

 

Counting

40

Counting Simple and Compound Meters; Counting Subdivisions

 

Mixed Meter

42

Rhythmic Equations; Double Time Signatures

 

Odd Meters

43

Non-Metrical Accents In Metrical Music

44

Silent Accents; Extra Accents; Odds From Evens; Syncopations; Camouflaged Rhythms; Bracketed Rhythms

 

Metrical Beat Versus Playing Beat

46

Fast Speeds; Slow Speeds; Subdivisions

 

Rhythm In An Orchestra

49

The Conductor; Beat Patterns

 

Polyrhythm

51

Patterns in Music; Counting

 

NON-METRICAL MUSIC

54

Music Without Beats; Beats Without Meter; The Conductor In Non-Metrical Music

54

STRICT RHYTHM

55

The Metronome

55

Problems; Types; Using

 

Tempo Indications

57

Arithmetical Basis Of Strict Rhythm

57

Fractions – Simple, Complex and Changing

 

FREE RHYTHM

59

How Free Is Free; Complete Freedom; Liberties; Metronome

 

PITCH

63

Pitch On All Musical Instruments

63

Short and Thin Equals High; Long and Thick Equals Low; Cello Strings

 

Physics Of Pitch

63

Cycles and Sound Waves; Frequency and Pitch; Octaves; Half Steps; Cents

 

Pitch On Stringed Instruments

64

High and Low on the Cello; Half Steps; Half Steps–More and Less; Whole Steps; Clusters; Glissandos; Quarter-Tones; Micro-Tones

 

BASIC PITCH NOTATION

68

Staff; Notes; Stems; Ledger Lines

68

Alphabet Names Of Notes

68

The Seven Letters; The Octave; "B" to "C" and "E" to "F"

 

Clefs

69

Bass Clef; Tenor Clef; Alto Clef; Treble Clef; Transposing Treble Clef; Clef Chart

 

Accidentals

77

Enharmonics

78

8va; 8bassa

79

THE LEFT HAND

80

Fingering

80

Fingering Numbers; Pitch Distance Between Fingers; Fingerboard Distances Between Fingers; Half Steps; Extensions; Shifts; Use of Thumb; Thumb Position

 

The Fingerboard Positions

83

Traditional Positions; Janos Starker’s Positions; Charts

 

Intonation

85

Playing In Tune; Pitch Copying; Pitch Memory; Perfect Pitch; Relative Pitch; Intonation Problems

 

INTRODUCTION TO INTERVALS

87

The Number/Names Of Intervals

87

Unisons; Major and Minor Intervals; Perfect Intervals; Augmented Intervals; Diminished Intervals; Tritone; Compound Intervals

 

Examples Of Intervals From Cello Parts

90

Inverted (Complementary) Intervals

91

Consonant And Dissonant Intervals

91

The Steps In All Intervals (Chart)

92

The Tuning Of The Instruments Of The Violin Family

93

INTRODUCTION TO SCALES

94

What Is A Scale?

94

Chain of Tones; Many Scales; Numbering of Scale Tones; Scales and Musical Styles

 

Ancient Scales

94

Pentatonic

 

Folk Scales

95

Eastern European

 

The Scales Of Traditional Classical Music

96

Diatonic Scales; Intervals; Number of Tones; Tetrachords; Tetrachords of the Major and Minor Scales; The Three Forms of the Minor Scale

 

Composed Scales

99

Interval Scales

99

All 2nds, 3rds, 4ths, 5ths, 6ths, 7ths

 

INTRODUCTION TO TRIADS

103

What Is A Triad?

103

Notation Of Triads

104

KEYS

105

What Is A Key?

105

Keynotes And Scales

105

Enharmonic Keys; How Many Keynotes? How Many Scales?

 

Key Signatures

107

Discovering a Key Signature; Notation

 

The Circle Of Fifths

108

Keys by Fifths; Sharp Keys; Flat Keys; Shortcuts to Naming Accidentals and Keys; Playing the Circle on the Cello; Other Shortcuts; Key Signatures That Lack an Accidental

 

Transposition

113

Modulation

114

 

 

 

Major And Minor Modes

115

Medieval Modes; Modern Modal Music

 

Major And Minor Keys

116

Relative Major and Minor; Tonic Major and Minor; Chart; Three Forms of the Minor – Why?; Enharmonic Minors; The Sound of Major or Minor; Clues to Major or Minor

 

MORE ABOUT INTERVALS

121

The Importance Of Intervals

121

Reading Intervals

121

Scale of the Bottom Note; Simplifying Augmented and Diminished Intervals; Reading Intervals on the Staff

 

Playing Intervals

123

Names and Sounds of Intervals; in Scales; in Music; Intervals on the Fingerboard; The Grid; Charts of All Intervals Anywhere on Fingerboard; Chart of Intervals by Name; Chart of Intervals by Fingering; Broken and Solid Intervals; Playing Scales in 3rds and 6ths

 

VARIANTS OF PITCH

136

Hearing Variants

136

Mysteries; Mels; Loudness; Distance; Cultural Variants

 

Intonation Variants

137

Tuning Variants

137

"Just" Intonation; Meantone; Equal Temperament

 

EMBELLISHMENTS, ORNAMENTS

140

Symbols Into Sound

140

Notation Of Embellishments

140

Accidentals; Grace Note; Trill; Tremolo; Mordent; Turn; Nachschlag; Written-Out Embellishment

 

WHAT’S THE SCORE

144

Score And Parts

144

Full Score; Open Score; Piano Reduction; Systems; Bar Lines; Rehearsal Letters; Cues

 

Scoring

146

Instrumentation; Sonata Score; Chamber Music Score; Orchestral Score

 

Transposing Instruments

149

SOLFÈGE

150

Syllables

150

Movable And Fixed Do

150

HARMONICS, OVERTONES

151

Natural Harmonics

151

The Natural Overtone Series; The Fundamental; Tone Quality; Playing Natural Harmonics Without Fundamental; Notation of Natural Harmonics on the Cello; Natural Harmonics of the Open Strings; Nodes; Octaves; Fifths; Thirds; Mirror Image; High Scale of Natural Harmonics; Weak Harmonics; Tuning With Natural Harmonics

 

Artificial Harmonics

157

New Open String; Playing Artificial Harmonics on the Cello; Nodes; Fingering; Notation

 

Examples Of Artificial Harmonics

159

Charts; Natural and Artificial Work the Same Way; Finding A Given Pitch as a Harmonic

 

MORE ABOUT TRIADS

163

Types Of Triads

163

Arrangements of Major and Minor 3rds; Diminished, Augmented, Minor and Major Triads; Why Triads?; Recognizing Triads in Music

 

Beyond Triads

165

Seventh Chords; Ninth Chords; Elevenths and Thirteenths; Polytonality and Bi-Tonality; Triadic and Non-Triadic Music

 

Triads And Seventh Chords As Tracers In The History Of Music

169

Before Triads; The Dissonant 3rd; Sevenths One by One; Onward and Upward

 

HARMONY

170

The Sound; The Subject of Study

 

Introduction To The Musical Principles Of Traditional Western Harmony

170

Keys; Key Signatures; Tones; Chords; Chart; Chord Progressions; Tension and Resolution; Related Keys; Passing Tones; Cadences

 

The Bass Line

178

Repetitive Bass Lines; Figured Bass; Continuo; Chord Inversions; Chords on the Fingerboard

 

The Harmony Of Single Tones

183

Harmony Without Harmony; Melodic Lines; Counterpoint and Polyphony; Imitation; Counterpoint and Polyphony in the 9th to 16th centuries; Baroque Period; Canon, Fugue; 19th and 20th centuries; Cello Repertoire

 

The Harmony Of Melodies And Chords – Homophony

188

The Great Divide; Vertical and Horizontal; Accompaniment; Duo; Looking High and Low for Melody; Homophony in the 9th to 16th centuries; Baroque and Classical Periods; 19th and 20th centuries; Cello Repertoire

 

NON-TONAL, TONAL, PAN-TONAL, ATONAL MUSIC

192

Non-Tonal, Tonal

192

Pitch Centers; Key Centers

 

Pan-Tonal, Atonal

193

Twelve-Tone; Serial; Free Atonality; Tonal vs. Atonal; Cello Repertoire

 

The Non-Tonal, Tonal, Pan-Tonal And Atonal Cellist

195

WHAT IS ‘TRADITIONAL’ AND ‘WESTERN’ ABOUT TRADITIONAL WESTERN MUSIC?

196

Traditional; Non-Traditional; Western; Non-Western; Classical and Popular; Cross-Cultural; World Music

 

ORGANIZATION

201

Repetition

201

Sequences

 

Form

204

Organization of Sections; Repetition Separates Sections; Movements; Traditional Forms; 20th Century Forms

 

Analysis Of Music

208

Who Analyzes Music?; How Is Music Analyzed? The Language of Analysis; Many Musical Experiences

 

LIST OF CHARTS

xii

INDEXES

211

Words

211

Numerals

226

Symbols

228

CHARTS  
Cello Clefs  
Fingerboard Positions  
Steps in All Intervals  
Tuning of Instruments of Violin Family  
Tetrachords of the Major and minor Scales  
Relative Major and minor Keys  

All Intervals Anywhere on Fingerboard

Chart I, Intervals by Name

Same String
Across 2 Strings

Across 3 Strings

Chart II, Intervals by Fingering

Across All Strings

 

Harmonics

Natural

Artificial

Spans and Sounds

Five Ways to Play High C

 

The Basic Chords

 

Chords on the Fingerboard